This video is composed of three parts. First is the Ciné Clinic presentation of Mark M. Ravitch and F. M. Steichen at the American College of Surgeons, Atlantic City, October 20, 1971, demonstrating the early instruments of Hultl, von Petz, Friedrich, Nakayama, as well as the first generation of U.S.-made staplers used for a clinical Billroth II gastrectomy. The second part, prepared by Mark M. Ravitch for a "mini museum" on stapling, was presented by the authors at the 1975 Congress of the American College of Surgeons in San Francisco. This "mini museum", now part of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., demonstrated instruments of Hultl, von Petz, Friedrich, and Nayakama used in the experimental laboratory during a gastrectomy, matching and integrating the four individual procedures with each of its corresponding instrument demonstration. Part three is a presentation of the various original Soviet Russian instruments, followed by a pulmonary lobectomy in which the bronchial closure is performed with Mark Ravitch's original UKB-25. The procedure was filmed in late 1960 or early 1961 at the then Baltimore City Hospital (now Francis Scott Key Medical Center).